Feasibility of supplying electrical energy demands with off-grid hybrid renewable systems to supply a small hotel in the desert

  • Mohammad Golkar Department of Renewable Energies and Environment, Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, University of Tehran
  • Ahmad Hajinezhad Department of Renewable Energies and Environment, Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, University of Tehran
  • Seyad Farhan Moosavian Department of Renewable Energies and Environment, Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, University of Tehran
Keywords: wind turbine, grid-off system, solar panel, optimization software, pollution


Considering the world’s ever-increasing need for energy, as well as the limited resources, pollution, and climate change caused by fossil fuels, it shows the necessity of using renewable energies more than ever. Iran has many tourist attractions. It is difficult to supply energy to welfare places in some of these areas due to the long distance from the city or the vulnerable environment, so their energy supply system is designed independently of the grid. Using a diesel generator to supply electricity can be considered the first solution for a hotel’s off-grid system, but this scenario has high costs and causes pollution. The second way is to use renewable energies such as wind and solar, but these energies are not stable due to weather conditions. One suggestion to overcome the periodicity of renewable energy sources such as the sun and wind is to develop a hybrid energy system in which excess electrical energy can be converted and stored. These resources, together with energy storage, can provide a system with better reliability that is suitable for off-grid applications. In the third case, the diesel generator can be combined with renewable energy. In this article, the electricity supply is for a small hotel with an area of 3995 m2 located in the Varzaneh desert of Isfahan province. The average electrical load required is 1530 kWh/day, and the peak load is 118.76 kW. The simulation of the system has been done with HOMER software, and the results have been categorized based on the three scenarios mentioned as well as the total net present cost of the system. With the obtained results, it is clear that the most optimal system is one with a combined supplier of a diesel generator, a photovoltaic panel, a wind turbine, and battery storage. The NPC value of this system is $1,995,016; the renewable rate is 87.1%; and its emissions are 84% lower than in the case where only the diesel generator supplier has them.


Peyvandi M, Hajinezhad A, Moosavian SF. Investigating the intensity of GHG emissions from electricity production in Iran using renewable sources. Results in Engineering 2023; 17(1): 100819. doi: /10.1016/j.rineng.2022.100819

Moosavian SF, Hajinezhad A, Fattahi R, Shahee A. Evaluating the effect of using nanofluids on the parabolic trough collector’s performance. Energy Science & Engineering 2023; 11(10): 3512–3135. doi: 10.1002/ese3.1537

Majnoon A, Hajinezhad A, Moosavian SF. Simulation model of carbon capture with MEA and the effect of temperature and duty on efficiency. Future Energy 2024; 3(2): 37–47. doi: 10.55670/fpll.fuen.3.2.5

Shoaei M, Moosavian SF, Hajinezhad A. 4E analysis of a concentrating photovoltaic thermal system (CPVT) with examining the effects of flow regime and concentration ratio. Energy Reports 2022; 8(2): 14753–14770. doi: 10.1016/j.egyr.2022.11.026

Ahmadi-Kaliji S, Hajinezhad A, Lotfabadi AK, et al. Energy modeling to compensate for the seasonal lack of electrical and thermal energy depending on the different climates of Iran. Heliyon 2023; 9(10): e20455. doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2023.e20455

Ahmed A, Ge T, Peng J, et al. Assessment of the renewable energy generation towards net-zero energy buildings: A review. Energy and Buildings 2022; 256(6): 111755. doi: 10.1016/j.enbuild.2021.111755

Taibi E, Gielen D, Bazilian M. The potential for renewable energy in industrial applications. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 2012; 16(1): 735–744. doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2011.08.039

Alamdari P, Nematollahi O, Alemrajabi AA. Solar energy potentials in Iran: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 2013; 21: 778–788. doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2012.12.052

Najafi G, Ghobadian B, Mamat R, et al. Solar energy in Iran: Current state and outlook. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 2015; 49: 931–942. doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2015.04.056

Keyhani A, Ghasemi-Varnamkhasti M, Khanali M, Abbaszadeh R. An assessment of wind energy potential as a power generation source in the capital of Iran, Tehran. Energy 2010; 35(1): 188–201. doi: 10.1016/j.energy.2009.09.009

Alamdari P, Nematollahi O, Mirhosseini M. Assessment of wind energy in Iran: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 2012; 16(1): 836–860. doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2011.09.007

Noorollahi Y, Khatibi A, Eslami S. Replacing natural gas with solar and wind energy to supply the thermal demand of buildings in Iran: A simulation approach. Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments 2021; 44: 101047. doi: 10.1016/j.seta.2021.101047

Shoaei M, Hajinezhad A, Moosavian SF. Design, energy, exergy, economy, and environment (4E) analysis, and multi-objective optimization of a novel integrated energy system based on solar and geothermal resources. Energy 2023; 280: 128162. doi: 10.1016/j.energy.2023.128162

Ramakumar R. Role of renewable energy in the development and electrification of remote and rural areas. In: Proceedings of the IEEE Power Engineering Society General Meeting, 2004; 6–10 June 2004; Denver, CO, USA. pp. 2103–2105. doi: 10.1109/PES.2004.1373253

Asvad M, Hajinezhad A, Jafari A, Moosavian SF. Multiscale kinetic modeling for biohydrogen production: A study on membrane bioreactors. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 2023; 48(76): 29641–29650. doi: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2023.04.151

Gatta FM, Geri A, Lauria S, et al. Replacing diesel generators with hybrid renewable power plants: Giglio smart island project. IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications 2018; 55(2): 1083–1092. doi: 10.1109/TIA.2018.2878155

Birgisson G, Petersen E. Renewable energy development incentives: Strengths, weaknesses and the interplay. The Electricity Journal 2006; 19(3): 40–51. doi: 10.1016/j.tej.2006.01.006

Badwawi RA, Abusara M, Mallick T. A review of hybrid solar PV and wind energy system. Smart Science 2015; 3(3): 127–138. doi: 10.1080/23080477.2015.11665647

Hossain M, Mekhilef S, Olatomiwa L. Performance evaluation of a stand-alone PV-wind-diesel-battery hybrid system feasible for a large resort center in South China Sea, Malaysia. Sustainable Cities and Society 2017; 28: 358–366. doi: 10.1016/j.scs.2016.10.008

Ngan MS, Tan CW. Assessment of economic viability for PV/wind/diesel hybrid energy system in southern Peninsular Malaysia. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 2012; 16(1): 634–647. doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2011.08.028

Bekele G, Palm B. Feasibility study for a standalone solar-wind-based hybrid energy system for application in Ethiopia. Applied Energy 2010; 87(2): 487–495. doi: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2009.06.006

Lal S, Raturi A. Techno-economic analysis of a hybrid mini-grid system for Fiji islands. International Journal of Energy and Environmental Engineering 2012; 3(1): 1–10. doi: 10.1186/2251-6832-3-10

Okonkwo EC, Okwose CF, Abbasoglu S. Techno-economic analysis of the potential utilization of a hybrid PV-wind turbine system for commercial buildings in Jordan. International Journal of Renewable Energy Research 2017; 7(2): 908–914. doi: 10.20508/ijrer.v7i2.5735.g7071

Dalton GJ, Lockington DA, Baldock TE. A survey of tourist operator attitudes to renewable energy supply in Queensland, Australia. Renewable Energy 2007; 32(4): 567–586. doi: 10.1016/j.renene.2006.02.006

Lowe D, Lloyd CR. Renewable energy systems for remote areas in Australia. Renewable Energy 2001; 22(1–3): 369–378. doi: 10.1016/S0960-1481(00)00043-4

Güler Ö, Akdağ SA, Dinçsoy ME. Feasibility analysis of medium-sized hotel’s electrical energy consumption with hybrid systems. Sustainable Cities and Society 2013; 9: 15–22. doi:10.1016/j.scs.2013.02.004

Dalton GJ, Lockington DA, Baldock TE. Feasibility analysis of stand-alone renewable energy supply options for a large hotel. Renewable Energy 2008; 33(7): 1475–1490. doi: 10.1016/j.renene.2007.09.014

Mohammadi F, Hajinezhad A, Kasaeian A, Moosavian SF. Effect of dust accumulation on performance of the photovoltaic panels in different climate zones. International Journal of Sustainable Energy and Environmental Research 2022; 11(1): 43–56. doi: 10.18488/13.v11i1.3041

Razeghi M, Hajinezhad A, Naseri A, et al. Multi-criteria decision for selecting a wind farm location to supply energy to reverse osmosis devices and produce freshwater using GIS in Iran. Energy Strategy Reviews 2023; 45(3): 101018. doi:10.1016/j.esr.2022.101018

Razeghi M, Hajinezhad A, Naseri A, et al. Multi-criteria decision-making for selecting a solar farm location to supply energy to reverse osmosis devices and produce freshwater using GIS in Iran. Solar Energy 2023; 253(1): 501–514. doi:10.1016/j.solener.2023.01.029

Ullah I, Chipperfield AJ. An evaluation of wind energy potential at Kati Bandar, Pakistan. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 2010; 14(2): 856–861. doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2009.10.014

Lambert T, Homer LP. The micro-power optimization model. Available online: http://www.mistaya.ca/homer/MicropowerSystemModelingWithHOMER.pdf (accessed on 18 December 2023).

Shahnia F, Moghbel M, Arefi A, et al. Levelized cost of energy and cash flow for a hybrid solar-wind-diesel microgrid on Rottnest island. In: Proceedings of the 2017 Australasian Universities Power Engineering Conference (AUPEC); 19–22 November 2017; Melbourne, VIC, Australia. pp. 1–6. doi: 10.1109/AUPEC.2017.8282413

Original Research Article